Osteoarthritis – a disease process in the joint, which can have different causes. They all lead to disorders of function and structure of one or more joints. This disease – the most common cause of chronic joint pain. It affects millions of people. In any case, the symptoms and treatment of arthritis of the individual and require supervision by a qualified podiatrist.
What is osteoarthritis?
The basis of the disease – progressive loss of cartilage, which is in the standard line contact of the bone of the department and ensures their slipping on each other. Under the influence of various reasons, the cartilage tissue starts to break down, which in the bone are activated immature stem cells, it is sealed, there are formed cavities (cysts) and growths (osteophytes).
Gradually narrows, and then disappears completely slit between the articular surfaces, and the limb will cease to move. When osteoarthritis suffer from all the tissues of the joint including the surrounding muscles, ligaments, articular capsules. Therefore, it is treatment of arthrosis of the joints – a difficult task, and in the later stages the patient can help only surgical intervention.
The most common form of pathology – deforming arthrosis, hitting the large joints of the lower limbs, and brush.
The causes of arthrosis
The possible causes of the development of arthrosis:
- endocrine disorders – diabetes, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, acromegaly, obesity;
- injury, how big (bone fractures, which leads to their articular surfaces are moved from a normal axis), so even microscopic, but durable (hard work, constant professional or sporting load);
- inflammatory processes: infectious arthritis, gout, rheumatoid disease;
- violation of metabolism in the body: paget's disease and Wilson-Konovalov;
- congenital developmental abnormalities, such as, for example, different length of extremities;
- genetic defects in the structure of collagen, for example, the syndrome of Ehlers-Danlos;
- neuropathy of different origin: the diabetic, alcohol;
- hemophilia during the frequent bleeding into the cavity of the joint.
To successfully treat osteoarthritis of the joints, it is necessary to remove the caused to its cause.
The symptoms and the stage of arthrosis
The disease is accompanied by such complaints, and external characters:
- headaches and movement disorders in one or more joints;
- painful sensations are aggravated after exertion, often at night, but in the severe stage of arthritis are permanent;
- dangerous complications – immobility of the joint, inability to move and serve themselves.
Common forms of the disease:
- the defeat of the interphalangeal joints of the fingers of the hand and the reasons for the thumb, can increase, swelling, sometimes becomes painful, in them develops inflammation;
- arthrosis of the hip joint: it is more common in men, is associated with heavy physical work; the main reason of this disease in women – obesity;
- osteoarthritis of the knee joint: most often it is connected with the professional activities in the position on his knees or squatting;
- osteoarthritis of the spine: it is accompanied by the formation of bony growths that retching nerve roots, causing pain, weakness, numbness in the extremities, constant pain in the lower back.
We distinguish the following degrees of arthrosis:
- 1 degree: mild restriction of motion.
- 2 stage: a significant limitation of mobility, crunching during movement, mild atrophy of the next muscle.
- 3 degree: deformation of the joint with almost complete lack of movement in it.
Depending on the degree of impairment of function and stage of the pathology in the treatment of this disease is involved in the doctors of different fields – therapists, physiotherapists, rheumatologists, neurologists, orthopedists.
Treatment of arthrosis
The goal of treatment – the removal of risk factors and pain, restore joint function. For this purpose it uses various methods of exposure:
- non-drugs: informing the patient about his disease and prevention of complications, rehabilitation, weight reduction, therapeutic exercise, use of assistive devices (orthoses, canes, crutches);
- drugs for arthritis: non-steroidal anti-antiinflammatory drugs, in particular their new generation – the selective COX-2 inhibitors; for the relief of chronic pain given the intake of atypical antidepressants; symptomatic medications will have only a minor value, because their effect to slow down the destruction of cartilage is not shown;
- when the accompanying inflammation and strong pain syndrome trauma perform intra-articular injection of glucocorticoid hormones;
- the most effective method is surgery, which gives the opportunity to get rid of pain and restore mobility.
Can be made various kinds of surgical procedure:
- arthroscopy – examination of the inner surface of the joint with the help of a small video camera (endoscope), removing fragments of cartilage blocking the joint;
- joint – replacement of the cartilage surface of the artificial material;
- osteotomy – dissection or removal of part of the bone to restore the normal axis of the joint;
- arthroscopic surgery – surgery to restore the integrity of the cartilage;
- arthrodesis – artificial creation of immobility in the joint (usually ankle) to rid the patient of the constant pain;
- joint – removal of damaged articular ends of the bones and their replacement with an artificial joint.
Guaranteed ways to prevent disease not. Prevention of arthrosis lies in the removal of excessive burdens on the joints, timely treatment of diseases, which contribute to cartilage destruction. Treatment of osteoarthritis folk remedies to slow the progression of the disease, but it helps at time to relieve the pain in the joints. It can only be regarded as a complement to traditional drug therapy or surgery.
Time – a negative factor for a patient with articular arthritis suffer from. The sooner will begin treatment, or operation is performed, the better the results. Therefore, when the occurrence of the symptoms of joint arthrosis it is recommended to seek medical help immediately.